Same old, same old

Origin stuff from 50 million years after the solar system formation 4.5 billion years ago, is still being extruded, exploded (or created, transformed) on our planets surface.

plate tectonics regurgitation expanding earthEarth's mantle is made of solid rock that nonetheless circulates slowly over millions of years. Some geologists assume that this slow circulation would have wiped away any geochemical traces of Earth's early history long ago. But a new study of volcanic rocks that recently erupted from volcanoes in Hawaii and Samoa reveals surprising geochemical anomalies - the 'fingerprints' of conditions that existed shortly after the planet formed.
Ancient Earth's fingerprints in young volcanic rocks | Science Daily

With relatively near genesis material still found to be coming out from the surface is less and less of the planets inner material recycled and regurgitated?

plate tectonics recycling growing earth"Nearly all of these anomalies formed within the first 50 million years after the solar system formed," Mundl said. "Higher than normal levels of tungsten-182 are seen in very old rocks that most likely contained a lot of hafnium long ago. But lower levels of tungsten-182 are rare, and resemble what we might expect to see deep beneath the surface, in or near the planet's metallic core."
Ancient Earth's fingerprints in young volcanic rocks | Science Daily

Who left their fingerprints at the crime scene?

Could peer reviewed science be right? Could these original element compounds have been unchanged for 4.5 billion years?

If the material was much younger than geology theory suggests could it have survived a shorter period of time?

If there was 'simple' globe expansion outwards and not classical plate tectonics with its at least seven supercontinents formations and breakups, could unchanged planet formation material still be beneath us?

Ancient cities latitude and longitude have grown?

Ptolemy and Johannes Kepler appeared to have recorded the wrong latitude and longitude for various ancient cities. Or did they?

Edmund Halley, he of the comet fame, suggested this was due to changes in the Earths/Moons rotation properties. Has relatively recent movement of the Earth's continents moved the locations of ancient cities?

ancient cities locations changedEdmund Halley (1695, p. 174), as part of a discussion of the identity and location of ancient cities relative to the geography of his time, explained discrepancies in recorded latitudes as a "change in the axis of the Earth" and longitudes (based on lunar positions) as evidence that "the Moon's motion does accelerate".

The latitude discrepancies were probably errors, and the longitude discrepancies are more correctly interpreted as an equivalent deceleration of Earth spin rate, but Halley clearly did raise
the possibility that Earth - Sun - Moon relationships need not be fixed as had formerly been supposed.
Stromatolites and Earth - Sun - Moon Dynamics (page 123) | direct link to PDF

ancient cities co-ordinates different expanding earthCould relatively rapid expansion of the Earth or local growth, explain the difference in some old cities longitude and latitude?

Ptolemy and Keplar did not record the wrong data for where these cities were located, the longitudes and latitudes were correct for their time?

The physical co-ordinates have actually moved as the planets crust and continents have grown or expanded?

An Expanding Earth or Growing Earth in theory changing the positions of ancient cities?

ancient cities latitude longitude moved Edmund Halley[Edmund Halley] then turned to the geography of the region identifying Aleppo, Andrene and Efree with the ancient cities of Berrhaea, Androna and Seriane respectively and stating that Ptolemy and more recently Kepler in the Rudolphine Tables (followed by Bullialdus and others) gave incorrect latitudes and longitudes for these cities.
Ancient Astronomical Observations and the Study of the Moon’s Motion (1691-1757)

Plate tectonics bitten to death?

Another painful blow and bite for plate tectonics theory and especially the very visually bizarre and seemingly impossible ultra rapid movement of the Indian Plate? Also for the idea of the supercontinent Gondwana and its breakup?

And all this trouble for and evidence against plate tectonics from one of the smallest and most annoying insects on the planet, the dreaded swarming biting midge?

plate tectonics india continent evidence wrong debunkedIndia gradually drifted away from Africa and Madagascar towards the north and collided with the Eurasian plate. Scientists assumed for a long time that the subcontinent was largely isolated during its long journey through the ocean and unique species of plants and animals were therefore able to develop on it. However, paleontologists at the University of Bonn are now showing using tiny midges encased in amber that there must have been a connection between the apparently cut off India and Europe and Asia around 54 million years ago that enabled the creatures to move around.
India was by no means as isolated as we thought | The Archaeology News Network

Continue reading "Plate tectonics bitten to death?"

Climate changes due to Expanding Earth?

Is there a possibility that an expanding Earth may have caused a dramatic climate change in our past?

Especially if there was an accelerated period of a growing planet?

Such as H G Owen slow expansion hypothesis or even an or multiple rapid and catastrophic planet expansions that would perhaps also explain Darwin's Dilemma and mysterious periods of relatively ultra quick orogeny (mountain building)?

c;limate change Earth growing planet expanding

Expanding and growing climate changes

Our planets environmental conditions seem to have changed rapidly and from one extreme to another in the same area. Fossils of creatures, plants and life show very varied habitats in the same physical locations. Geology also seems to back this evidence up.

What would be the physical and environmental changes to our globe if it did increase in size or mass/weight?

climate change global warming cooling

What would be the effects?

expanding Earth growing planet theory effectsWhat would be the effects of an Expanding Earth or a Growing Earth? What changes would it create?

What physical differences would an expanding in size planet have? How would it effect the flora and fauna on our planet?

Would a globe growing in weight/mass have a measurable and observable impact on human life on Earth?

How would our environment change if the planet did change its physical data set due to increases in stuff? Continue reading "What would be the effects?"

Expanding Earth science mission

Sentinel COMETThe surface of our planet is going to mapped in much finer detail as scientists look to find warping of the crustal rock.

The aim of the Sentinel/COMET project is to detect earthquake and volcano movements.

But could the data be used as evidence to prove or deny the Growing Earth and Expanding Earth theories? Or will it always depend on your interpretation of the data?

To be really effective, the team's maps need to be sensitive to movements of about 1mm per year over 100km ... As a proof of principle - and to give an example of what the new system can do - the COMET group showed off its maps of Turkey at AGU.

These capture the 20-25mm/year westwards march of the Anatolian plateau relative to Eurasia.
Sentinels map Earth's slow surface warping

Sentinel COMET expanding growing earth evidence

Over the next 1-2 years, the resulting ground velocity maps should meet the desired accuracy of 1 mm/yr/100 km to measure strain-rates (10 nanostrain/yr) at a comparable level to current existing sparse regional GPS measurement networks.
G23A-1037: LiCSAR: Tools for automated generation of Sentinel-1 frame interferograms

No Plate Tectonics regurgitation?

Plate Tectonic theories regurgitationThe new winner of the oldest fossils on Earth have been discovered and dated but their survival is a real issue for plate tectonics.

The Greenland Isua stromatolites, microbe communities that lived on the sea floor, have been found in Greenland's Isua greenstone belt and these microbes are being dated as 3700 million years old. Our planet in theory being 4500 million years old.

This also suggests that life forms were already thriving only 500 million years after the planet was formed.

Don't eat the stromatolites!

tectonicus Plate Tectonics regurgitationThe date of the stromatolites is derived from volcanic ash and tiny crystals of zircon with uranium and lead particles which are of course used in dating methodologies. The piece of rock itself is described as ancient sea floor and here is a mystery.

In Plate Tectonics theory ancient sea floor is regularly subducted down into the Mantle - so why is a bit of sea floor dating back almost to the birth of the planet still existing on the surface of Greenland? Was it subducted and then brought back up again - and if so why did it not erase evidence of the stromatolites? If sea floor can survive for 3700 million years on Greenland where does this leave Plate Tectonics?

The answer of course is regurgitation - which takes us back full circle. Why weren't the stromatolites gobbled up by the Earth's mantle never to be seen again?
Stromatolites | Society for Interdisciplinary Studies News

Greenlands plate tectonics controversy

Plate Tectonics regurgitation Isua Greenstone BeltIn the scientific community, studies are still being conducted that hope to solve the big question of the Isua Greenstone Belt: What processes caused its formation?

This area remains under controversy in the scientific community because it is arguable that there were different tectonic processes, or styles, occurring in Archean times that would have affected the outcome of what we see today: a mass of very old rocks surrounded by younger rocks that have been heavily altered in some areas and are separated by tectonic and depositional contacts.

The Isua Greenstone Belt is the only place in the world that does not conform entirely to the idea of vertical plate tectonics (an idea that is still debated).
Isua Greenstone Belt Controversies | Wikipedia

Mountain growing periods

Mountain growing periods Laramide NevadanAre the North American mountain building periods (orogeny) evidence that sections of the planets surface can grow upwards?

The Laramide orogeny, a mountain building period mainly in the North America continent, has puzzling geological features including upward thrusts, wedges and intrusions. The Nevadan orogeny was an even bigger event.

It is now suggested that these events of parts of the Earth growing upwards were actually multiple events and not just a one of period.

Why do you seem to get hill and mountain ranges that abruptly rise out of the ground, yet do not seem to effect the level ground close to them?

Laramide orogeny, a series of mountain-building events that affected much of western North America in Late Cretaceous and Paleogene time. (The Cretaceous Period ended 65.5 million years ago and was followed by the Paleogene Period.)
Laramide orogeny | Encyclopædia Britannica

evidence planet earth is growing expandingThe Laramide orogeny was a compressional event that took place from approximately 80-40Ma and coincided with rapid convergence of the North American and Farallon plates. Basement-cored uplifts dominate the structures that define the Laramide orogen throughout western North America.

Although compression is what caused these uplifts, the ultimate cause, direction, and consequences of the Laramide orogeny have been debated.
Laramide orogeny | University of Colorado Boulder

Elevation differences between the uplifts and basins can be 10,000 ft plus and landscape can change between steep rugged mountains and rolling prairies within only hundreds of miles.
The Laramide Orogeny | Dakota Matrix Minerals

Mountain and land growing upwards

Could uplifts be evidence that selected parts of our landscape have grown upwards?

Laramide orogeny expanding earth theoryThe Laramide uplifts are characterized by basement involved low angle thrust faults that overlapped sections of crust.

Forces were so great that in some places 10,000 to 20,000 feet of vertical movement is observed.
The Laramide Orogeny | Dakota Matrix Minerals

Could uplifts of raised beaches show that those areas have also grown outwards?

Laramide orogeny growing earth theoryWith amazingly thick sediment rock strata of up to 10,000 feet found on top of non sedimentary rock, the following are 3 suggested solutions.

The top layers have been pushed upwards or they were somehow deposited on top of the existing rock formations or they were transformed where they were found?

What other events or processes could have perhaps made these selected parts of the planet Earth grow? Or did they expand?

Expanding Pluto? Yes. Contracting Mercury? Yes. Expanding Earth? Pseudoscience.

expanding earth theory evidence pluto growing expansion planetsSome scientists have suggested, due to the totally geology theory surprising visual evidence that was not predicted, that Pluto may be expanding.

Similar cracks, fissures, rifts, cliffs, escarpments, geological features on Mercury, due to pre existing theories, have scientists suggesting that planet Mercury is shrinking. Mercury is a tiny planet and was considered geological dead before recent findings.

Planet Earth, one of the most geological active, energetic, electromagnetically active planets in our solar system is absolutely stable. If you suggest the idea that similar geological features on our planet means it has or is expanding or then you are a crackpot dealing in pseudoscience. Fact - the geology is settled.
Continue reading "Expanding Pluto? Yes. Contracting Mercury? Yes. Expanding Earth? Pseudoscience."

Periods of Earth expansion

earth expansion theory idea hypothesisIf planet Earth (and others) have expanded could they have periods of expansion spurts with reduced or non growth episodes between?

Planets do not have to grow continuously. If there is such a thing as an expanding Earth and expanding planets this goes against standard science.

A start/stop expansion cycle is an acceptable proposal for those interested in exploring all the possibilities of why the continental plates appear to fit together on a smaller globe.

A recent proposal by a planetary scientist after a new plate tectonics simulation suggests that in their model the movement of the plates can suddenly start and stop depending on how internally hot a planet is.

planets earth expansion evidence theoriesEstimates of the early Earth’s temperatures suggest Earth may have begun in a hot stagnant lid mode, evolving into an episodic regime throughout most of the Archaean, before finally passing into a plate tectonic regime. The implication of these results is that, for many cases, plate tectonics may be a phase in planetary evolution between hot and cold stagnant states, rather than an end-member.

... The new timeline suggests that Earth’s plate tectonics is just a midpoint in the planet’s evolution between two stagnant states. Planets with different starting temperatures than Earth’s follow different trajectories, the team found. Colder planets may exhibit plate tectonics throughout their history while hotter planets could go for billions of years without plate tectonics.
A window for plate tectonics in terrestrial planet evolution?

Expansion of planets and moons?

A geodynamicist commenting on the paper proposes this could mean planet Venus (other planets and moons?) might trigger plate tectonics again in their future.

earth expansion Darwin’s Dilemma Cambrian Explosion RadiationThe long delay before full-blown plate tectonics hints that the process could one day begin on currently stagnant planets, says Julian Lowman, a geodynamicist at the University of Toronto who was not involved in the research. “There is a possibility that plate tectonics could start up on Venus if conditions were right,” he says.
Plate tectonics just a stage in Earth’s life cycle

Earth expansion episodes

Hugh Owen through his slow expansion hypothesis and book Atlas of Continental Displacement suggests that our globe suddenly started expanding and triggered the recent plate tectonic break up of Pangea, the last super continent, from around 200 million years ago.

Grace Shephard and colleagues have also studied if there are more agreement between the various tomography models at certain depths of the mantle. They have made discoveries that suggest more paleoseafloor can be found at around 1,000 – 1,400 km beneath the surface than at other depths.

"If these depths are translated to time – and we presuppose that the seafloor sinks into the mantle at a rate of 1 centimeter per year – it could mean that there was a period around 100–140 million years ago that experienced more ocean destruction. However, it could also identify a controversial region in the Earth that is more viscous, or 'sticky,' and causes sinking features to pile up, a bit like a traffic jam. These findings, and the reasons behind, bear critical information about the surface and interior evolution of our planet," explains Shephard.

... Plate reconstruction models generally agree that about 130 million years ago, there was a peak in the amount of subduction happening.
Why did the Earth's ancient oceans disappear? | phys.org

Expanding Earth's life

The Cambrian Explosion or Cambrian Radiation of what seems to be near instant evolution of species and life, said to have occurred around 550 million years ago, suddenly started and stopped within 10 million years. The Cambrian Evolution is a massive problem for Darwin s evolution theories and is known as Darwin’s Dilemma.

Darwin’s DilemmaThe theory of the Cambrian Explosion holds that, beginning some 545 million years ago, an explosion of diversity led to the appearance over a relatively short period of 5 million to 10 million years of a huge number of complex, multi-celled organisms.

Moreover, this burst of animal forms led to most of the major animal groups we know today, that is, every extant Phylum.

It is also postulated that many forms that would rightfully deserve the rank of Phylum appeared in the Cambrian only to rapidly disappear.
The Cambrian Explosion | Fossil Museum

Could the Cambrian Explosion and other rapid evolutionary periods be due to plate tectonics or an expanding planet starting and stopping in repeated cycles?

What are all the possible explanations, processes or mechanics for planets interiors or mantles to get repeatedly warmer and colder?